Thursday, April 15, 2021

Nature's natural corridor

Where were we?


Pedunculate oak on Burringham hill in Scunthorpe
2,225 trees planted on site I and J

We were working on two large distinct sites in Scunthorpe in North Lincolnshire that were connected by the Ironstone and Ridgeway walkway linking parks and greenspaces from North to South through Scunthorpe. We were planting 21,000 trees across ‘Hempdykes’ adjacent to Ferry road through to Doncaster road, and around Burringham hill area which extended from Hardy road to West Common Lane. These sites held similar features of having small areas of existing woodland and scrub coverage and on behalf of the local council and trees provided by ‘Trees for Climate’, TCV contributed to developing a wildlife corridor through Scunthorpe, fundamentally contributing to targets for the Northern Forest Project. North Lincolnshire council have planned to plant 172,000 trees in the next 5 years to improve greenspaces and create 25 acres of woodland. To develop local areas to where I live is quite rewarding as I feel I am developing the green spaces for the great cause. 

Biodiversity



2,725 trees planted at site B and C at Hempdyke


Across the area we planted 12 species of trees and 7 species of shrub to create a diversity woodland. These species included (image above) Throughout planting I developed my skills in tree identification by the coloration of the buds and bark and the shape of the leaves for example I learnt that Rowan has darker bark and black buds compared to hazel that has lighter bark and medium sized green buds and Field maple having bark that appears to have vein like indentations that run down the length of the stem and light-colored dots on the bark. Trees we did not plant were Dutch elm disease which can be spread by Bark beetles which was accidently imported and has devastated the native Elm in the UK. However, we did plant a species of elm, specifically Wych elm which has resistance to this disease which allows it to be involved in the planting program. Similarly, European ash (Fraxinus excelsior) cannot be planted in the UK because of ‘Ash dieback’ which can be identified by a dark brittle band on the bark which can result in the whole tree collapsing. Compared to reading a book on tree ID, to physically plant the trees has developed my ID skills of native broadleaf and I would more confident now in identifying a species compared to at the start when I started this project.  

What were we conserving?

Wildlife corridors are created to link habitats together to allow wildlife to disperse and have connected movement between historic and new sites, otherwise wildlife would be isolated to one area due to habitat fragmentation. Wildlife corridors usually are linear and can vary in size and type to provide connectivity. With ever growing human populations and expansion of urban areas and infrastructure, these wildlife corridors can be many forms such as rivers, woodland, hedgerows and man-made ‘green bridges’ which are more predominant in biodiversity hotspots.

Planting on Hardy road next to Westcliff Primary School

Why is this conservation important?

Forestry research indicates that from 31st March 2020 there is an estimated 3.21 million hectares which represents 13% of the total land coverage in the UK, 10% in England, 15% in Wales, 19% in Scotland. Connectivity fundamentally provides species the ability to freely immigrate which as a result can assist in supporting a genetically diverse and genetic flow for meta populations. Freedom to travel though connected wildlife corridors allow species to avoid predation and movement away from possible catastrophic events such as wildfires or oil spills into a waterway that could wipe out a population if they were restricted to one habitat. Alongside this, global pressures of climate change trends, require connectivity for species to immigrate away from areas which are no longer suitable such as migrating birds which are migrating further North.

In the UK, Roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) are 1 of 6 deer which travel long distance across the UK and cover a large extent of occurrence and are commonly seen amongst urban environments. Linear fragmentation and degraded woodland highlighted an impairment in gene flow compared to intact connected woodland. In the future genetic methods may constitute a useful tool to identify the state to prioritize action plans for maintaining functional wildlife corridors across landscapes. On the other hand, a mammal which benefits tremendously from intact woodland is the Hazel dormouse (Muscardinus avellanarius). A rare and vulnerable species to extinction this species is a priority species on the Biodiversity Action Plan and under the Wildlife and Countryside act 1981. The Hazel dormouse has continued to decline in population numbers for over 100 years with 72% of the population declining 25 years ago.

Planting on site G and H on Hempdykes

More information 

North Lincolnshire Council | Ambitious plans revealed to create 25 acres of urban woodland in Scunthorpe (northlincs.gov.uk)

North Lincolnshire Council | Tree planting scheme continues to grow (northlincs.gov.uk)

The Northern Forest: Planting 50 Million Trees | The Woodland Trust

Wildlife corridors – Woodlands.co.uk

Benefits of Conserving Wildlife Corridors (biologydiscussion.com)

Burkart, S., Gugerli, F., Senn, J., Kuehn, R. & Bolliger, J. (2016). Evaluating the functionality of expert-assessed wildlife corridors with genetic data from roe deer. Basic and Applied Ecology, 17(1): 52-60.


Dondina, O., Kataoka, L., Orioli, V. & Bani, L. (2016). How to manage hedgerows as effective ecological corridors for mammals: A two-species approach. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, 231: 283-290.


Crooks, K. and Sanjayan, M., 2006. Connectivity conservation: maintaining connections for nature. Cambridge University Press, pp.1-20.--- Connectivity conservation: maintaining connections for nature (Chapter 1) - Connectivity Conservation (cambridge.org)


 Woodland Statistics - Forest Research

Hazel Dormouse (Muscardinus avellanarius) - Woodland Trust

Saturday, March 27, 2021

It's all about them reeds

Where were we?

We were working on a water treatment site owned by Severn Trent Water in Blyth, Southeast of Northumberland, and Northeast of Newcastle upon Tyne. The site was next to Blyth port and adjacent to the River Blyth near the mouth of the Estuary leading to the coast. The water treatment site historically was a coal mining site where it was easily transported through the ‘busiest port in England’ at Blyth in 1961, where it shipped 6 million tonnes of coal. To make use of a site that had lagoon like ponds, Severn Trent now use this site to provide an amenity in providing clean drinking water for the town of Blyth and neighboring coastal villages.

On the Severn Trent site there were 6 lagoons varying in size and depth. The largest lagoon was situated at the back of the site nearest the mouth of the Estuary where it undergoes a cycle of planting and removal of reeds every couple of years, acting as a natural way to filtrate wastewater better than mechanical treatment. The reeds are removed to remove the substrate that is highly contaminated with contaminants such as iron and Phosphates and then replanted.


Smaller end of the lagoon to plant
Numerous species for large scale plantation

What were we conserving?

Several TCV teams across Scotland and the North planted 10+ native species of reeds including (Phragmites australis) the Common reed. The Common reed is commonly the dominant species that can cover 60% of wetlands, can grow to 2-4 metres tall and has an extensive root system. Smaller species of reed such as the Yellow Iris (Iris pseudocorus), Sea such (Juncus maritimus) and Cordgrass (Spartina maritima) have been planted on the outer perimeter to allow pollinating insects access especially to the intricate flowering Iris’s and to create gradual land to water transition.

Across the UK there is currently 5,000 hectares of reedbed in the UK at 900 sites which are fundamentally restricted and smaller compared to other habitats such as woodlands where there are efforts in creating connectivity. Since 1945, 40% of reed beds have been lost and 90% since Roman times and are continuing to dramatically decline and becoming scarce.

Cell grown reed plugs
Yellow Iris

Why is this conservation important?

Reedbeds have declined in the UK due to destruction for development and drainage of wetlands. Our usage of dried reeds for traditional thatched cottage roofs has declined as there is limited demand for this raw material nowadays. Reedbeds require wetland habitat to thrive due to the moisture and substrate composition so it is not surprising that correspondingly wetlands are also declining across the UK.

50cmx50cm reed plantation format 

Large scale reed planting projects provide habitat for many species such as the rare Eurasian bittern (Botaurus stellaris) is habitat specific and will only breed and nest in thick reed vegetation known also as a habitat specialist. In 1885 the Bitten was extinct in the UK after persecution and habitat loss but some individuals returned to Norfolk in 1900. The population since has yoyoed from 80 breeding males in the 1950s down to 11 males in 1997. Currently there are only a small population in Norfolk and Lancashire and some fragmented individuals at Barton Upon Humber at Far Ings Nature Reserve. Reed beds are fundamentally the lifeline to breeding for the Bittern and without planting ad improving wetlands and reed beds this species will go extinct again from the UK.

Another species which is dependent on reedbeds is the Water vole (Arvicola amphibibius) and again has been drastically affected by decline in habitat and environmental availability and quality. Without reed beds acting as a

refuge the Water vole is being predated on by the American mink (Neovison vison). Predation rate declined tremendously where voles could be further in the middle of a water channel. Consequently, reedbeds are now being a focus in connecting vole populations and providing stability across England and Wales.

How to get involved?

This was a residential project that only TCV received an accepted proposal for in partnership with Severn Trent water. There are TCV teams offering weekly tasks for volunteers throughout the UK; encouraging everyone to get outside and have a go and feel apart of the team. Currently Covid-19 is limiting volunteer availability but with the road map set out and with social distancing in place, restrictions are being eased. Have a look for your local TCV office and opportunities like this residential may come up in the future. Being a volunteer for TCV is very rewarding.

More Information

Blyth Town Council - History

Reedbed | Sussex Wildlife Trust

Why wetlands | WWT

Phragmites australis (common reed) (cabi.org)

The RSPB: News: Wetland loss threatens wildlife and people,

Bringing Reedbeds To Life Conservation Project - The RSPB

Bittern Population Trends - The RSPB

Puglisi, L. and Bretagnolle, V., 2005. Breeding Biology of the Great Bittern. Waterbirds, 28(3), pp.392-398.

Carter, S. and Bright, P., 2003. Reedbeds as refuges for water voles (Arvicola terrestris) from predation by introduced mink (Mustela vison). Biological Conservation, 111(3), pp.371-376.

Thursday, November 28, 2019

Life on camera


Where were we?


The North York Moors covers 5522 miles, that was established in 1952 by the National Parks and Access to the Countryside Act 1941. Home to the one of the largest Heather moorlands in the UK, alongside cultivated land providing timber, peat and hydrological services. 22% of the North York Moors is covered by woodland, predominantly in the North of the region consisting of a high density of ancient and veteran trees. These established woodlands of varying age from new growth to decaying dead trees can support and array of iconic British wildlife such as Red Grouse, Short-eared Owls and the regionally rare Pine Martin. The whole region is managed by North York Moors National Park Authority supported by the National Lottery Heritage Fund.


What were we conserving?


Camera traps are non-invasive methods of 24/7 monitoring of important sites of interest along with the species that would inhabit the area. Cameras are set up at knee height, secured to fixed vegetation. Triggered by a combination of a change in heat and movement; capturing either photos or videos by infrared flash, that doesn’t frighten the animals. Naturespy is a non-profitable, social enterprise providing camera trap footage to fund future research and conservation. Regionally since 2017 through the Yorkshire Pine Martin Support Programme, 1 male Pine Martin has been identified amongst the fragmented woodland, predominately seen along the edges of its known range in the Cropton forests. In small groups, 20 second video footage were analysed and recorded of what, where and when species triggered the camera. 
Camera trap design (Rankin,2019)

Why is this conservation important?


Camera traps are beneficial in highlighting broad-spectrum biodiversity surveys, identifying species which may be either known or unknown to be within the habitat. As in the case of the 1 male Pine Martin in the Dalby forest, capturing footage of elusive species in expanding their range from main populations in Scotland which would otherwise not be known to be in the area. Camera traps have been found to be 31% more effective than other detection methods, recording 91% more species as result of being non-invasive, encouraging species to perform natural behaviours, without being interrupted by human presence. Studying behaviours will increase species understanding such as reproductive/courtship and dispersal behaviour, furthermore, highlighting any management impacts and future conservation. Species such as the Red fox (figure 1) and European badger (figure 2) can be identified by their diagnostic features and recorded through GPS, creating a record of areas of interest to support populations. A limitation of camera trapping is that in-situ footage can be impacted by 50% theft and 42% decreased sensor performance, along with increased productivity of cheaper recreational units that may be used for other purposes such as hunting. Camera traps can create unmistakable evidence however, by being paired with other surveys such as DNA analysis and track counts as in the case of studying population dynamics of Pine Martins in North Yorkshire. 
 
Field notebook species identification (Rankin,2019) 

How to get involved


Targeting communities through citizen science allows everyone with different practical preference and skills to get involved. MammalsWeb collaborates footage throughout the UK; volunteers are needed to identify wildlife captured on film, with an added benefit of staying indoors allowing any age to participate and feel achievement in supporting wildlife. NatureSpy encourages people who are able-bodied, with a desire to get outdoors to assist in setting up camera traps, such opportunities are recorded from time to time so keep an eye out if you’re interested. NatureSpy relies on donations to carry out monitoring an to collaborate in projects worldwide. All efforts from funding can be seen by published success articles.

More information

  • Caravaggi, A., Banks, P., Burton, A., Finlay, C., Haswell, P., Hayward, M., Rowcliffe, M. and Wood, M. (2017). A review of camera trapping for conservation behaviour research. Remote Sensing in Ecology and Conservation, 3(3), pp.109-122.
  • GloverKapfer, P., SotoNavarro, C. and Wearn, O. (2019). Cameratrapping version 3.0: current constraints and future priorities for development. Remote Sensing in Ecology and Conservation, 5(3), pp.209-223.
  • Newey, S., Davidson, P., Nazir, S., Fairhurst, G., Verdicchio, F., Irvine, R. and van der Wal, R. (2015). Limitations of recreational camera traps for wildlife management and conservation research: A practitioner’s perspective. Ambio, 44(S4), pp.624-635.
  • Wearn, O. and Glover-Kapfer, P. (2019). Snap happy: camera traps are an effective sampling tool when compared with alternative methods. Royal Society Open Science, 6(3), p.181748.



Thursday, November 14, 2019

Heathland Haven


Where were we?

Skipwith Common is a recognized SSSI National Nature Reserve since 1957 located in Selby near York, containing 270 hectares of mixed woodland and lowland heathland,making it a recognized site with European importance of being one of the most northerly hemisphere locations having a mixture of dry and wet heath. Skipwith Common is privately owned by the Esrick Estate, overseen by Natural England, full of biodiversity ranging from aquatic plants to ground nesting birds like the Nightjar and Stone curlew, heritage from WWII RAF base and archaeology from the Bronze and Iron age.  

What were we conserving?

We were conserving evergreen species on the heathland near the main entrance of the reserve; Cross Leaf Heath (Erica tetralix), Common heather (Calluna vulgaris) and Bell heather (Erica cinereal), by either removing or cutting near the base of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) and Silver birch (Betula pendula) that were growing in the same habitat. Both species of tree are fast growing seed dispersers that would take over the entire heathland if not maintained by manual labour or conservation grazing. Subsequently, both species of vegetation would compete for resources such as light and water altering the ecology of the dry and wet heathland. Within the environment, age diversity on the heathland was encouraged to create richness for a variety of in/vertebrates, this is why we did not cut the evergreen as it is beneficial to an abundance of species.  

Practically getting involved on the heathland (Rankin,2019)
Species identification (Rankin,2019)

Why is this conservation important?

Maintaining heathland brings biodiversity to all tropic levels creating a mosaic of habitats; containing grasses, flowers, bare ground and boggy margins all within a small area compared to complete structural habitats such as woodland. 143 species are directly linked to heathland; 8% reptiles and 21% mammals. Heathland is under threat due to the lack or inappropriate management, evidently with only 16% left throughout the UK since 1800, 20% of all known heathland globally. In the past 40 years heathland conservation has been re-recognized as being an ecologically valuable service for humans; by storing carbon minimizing climate change effects and natural hydrology barriers reducing flood risks as well as provisioning services such as peat, coal and game. Due to ever changing social and economic pressures, habitat loss being the major factor due to agriculture herbicides, fragmentation, inappropriate grazing, infrastructural development, encroachment by invasive species and disease. Positively heathland can be restored by a regime of burning which depletes the nutrients in the soil allowing heath to thrive in low soil acidification and cutting to create age diverse vegetation, however this practice is less effective. Skipwith Common is an advocate for conservation grazing consisting of 270 Hebridean sheep, Longhorn cattle and 7 Oxmoor ponies. A limiation to grazing it that it is not effective at depleting soil nutrients, more so the recycling of the heath.

How to get involved?

Volunteers who would like to be outdoors on this diverse landscape can practically get involved on a Tuesday and Thursday by contacting the site warden, in which to gain practical skills and knowledge of management of an important ecosystem. Planned events are directed at all age ranges as seen on the Events bulletin, allowing children, the elderly or with disabilities, to get involved if they wish with casual litter picks on designated accessible paths, educational talks and social events. Skipwith Common is a minimalistic site with no toilets, café and is exposed; so, remember to wrap up warm. Being outdoors has mental health benefits; be encouraged to get out and see the great outdoors by having a look at Natural England for other National Nature Reserves.

More information

  • Cordingley, J. (2012). Ecosystem service provision in dynamic heath landscapes. Bournemouth University, pp.20-24.
  • Diaz, A., Green, I. and Evans, D. (2011). Heathland Restoration Techniques: Ecological Consequences for Plant-Soil and Plant-Animal Interactions. ISRN Ecology, 2011, pp.1-8.
  • Fagúndez, J. (2012). Heathlands confronting global change: drivers of biodiversity loss from past to future scenarios. Annals of Botany, 111(2), pp.151-172.
  • Gimingham, C. (1985). Age-Related Interactions between Calluna vulgaris and Phytophagous Insects. Oikos, 44(1), p.12.
  •  Price, E. (2002). Lowland Grassland and Heathland Habitats. London: Department of Environment and Geography Sciences in Manchester Metropolitan University, pp.7-39
  • Webb, N. (2008). The traditional management of European heathlands. Journal of Applied Ecology, 35(6), pp.987-990.

Thursday, October 31, 2019

Bottleneck for marine plastic


Where was we?

Spurn point is a 327-hectare nature reserve owned by the Yorkshire Wildlife Trust, packed full of diverse ecology consisting of grassland, salt marshes, mudflats and coastline as well its nostalgic natural history. The site is located South of Kilnsea at Spurn head (TA 419 149) at the very Southerly end of the Yorkshire Nature Triangle, bringing its benefits of acting as a bottleneck for rare and native migratory birds reaching records of 400 different species in May 2019.

What were we conserving?

Spurn point receives relentless quantities of marine litter due to the longshore drift along the East coast and Humber estuary creating its iconic 4-mile narrow tidal coastline. As part of a Waste of Waves initiative rangers complete daily litter picks on sections of the beach every day due to being heavily protected for wading birds and marine mammals. We got stuck in by scouring the coastline collecting a variety of litter from plastic bottles to discarded fishing line and nets into bags, that were later processed and categorised into litter type as future data for the Marine Conservation Society to highlight trends around the UK.
Litter picking along the coast of Spurn

Why is this conservation important?

Marine plastic has been documented to have been in the environment the past 50 years, reaching records of 300 million metric tonnes in 2013 with no sight of the problem reducing in the years to come. Originating as land based, working its way down water courses to marine habitats where plastic makes up 70% of all debris. Marine plastic fundamentally alters marine ecological functions and community structure of fisheries and charismatic mammals such as turtles and whales through ingestion and entanglement, meanwhile impacting human health via ingestion as well as human well-being recreational activities such as diving, also being a large contributor to climate change. Plastic has travelled up the food chain via microplastics, reaching parts of the world which otherwise would be inaccessible highlighting how vast this problem is on a regional to international scale.

To tackle the wave of plastic, conservation actions have had to tackle all boundaries for sustainability such as education to the public, emphasizing on recycling and single use plastics and discarding litter responsibly. Conservation groups such as the Marine Conservation Society and Living Seas have tackled reducing fishing litter from local fishermen with the introduction of designated areas for waste drop off, along with education to the general public and school children through public talks and media. UK Government have implemented legislation through the Convention of Marine Pollution by Dumping Wastes and Other Material 1972 enforcement to control marine pollution and Zero avoidable waste by 2050 involving a deposit- return scheme for plastic bottles, while almost all major retailers have combat food packaging standards by pledging to the UK Plastic Pact in April 2018 with the introduction of carrier bag charges which have meant 40% fewer plastic bags being found on beaches and 100% recyclable, reusable or compostable packaging through altering single use plastic.




How to get involved?

You don’t have to have any past experience or expertise to join a beach clean; its open to anyone! All you would need to do is wrap up warm and bring the whole family, everything else is provided. Joining a beach clean is simple; look on The Wildlife Trust or Marine Conservation Society website, searching for ‘Beach cleans’ where all the information of location, date and times listed of upcoming gatherings will take place. Practically contributing to enhancing the environment by removing litter will make you feel accomplished.

More information

  • Beaumont, N., Aanesen, M., Austen, M., Börger, T., Clark, J., Cole, M., Hooper, T., Lindeque, P., Pascoe, C. and Wyles, K. (2019). Global ecological, social and economic impacts of marine plastic. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 142, pp.189-195.
  • Chen, C. (2012). Regulation and Management of Marine Litter. Marine Anthropogenic Litter, pp.395-428.
  • Derraik, J. (2002). The pollution of the marine environment by plastic debris: a review. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 44(9), pp.842-852.
  • Dixon-Hardy, D. and Curran, B. (2009). Types of packaging waste from secondary sources (supermarkets) – The situation in the UK. Waste Management, 29(3), pp.1198-1207.
  • Law, K. (2017). Plastics in the Marine Environment. Annual Review of Marine Science, 9(1), pp.205-229
  • Löhr, A., Savelli, H., Beunen, R., Kalz, M., Ragas, A. and Van Belleghem, F. (2017). Solutions for global marine litter pollution. Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability, 28, pp.90-99.
  • Sheavly, S. and Register, K. (2007). Marine Debris & Plastics: Environmental Concerns, Sources, Impacts and Solutions. Journal of Polymers and the Environment, 15(4), pp.301-305.
  • Youtube.com. (2018). YouTube. [online] Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IA9O9YUbQew [Accessed 5 Nov. 2019].
  • Marine Conservation Society
  • Spurn Point Nature Reserve


Thursday, October 3, 2019

Starting on a high at Tophill Low!


Where was we?

Tophill Low is relatively new reserve since 1993 consisting of varied landscape such as woodland that was randomly planted in the 1960's, meadow and wetland. This landscape is nestled between farmland that has been treated with chemicals, acting as a green diverse heaven for residents and migrant species differing in rarity. All information is available including leaflets at.


Bat Business


As a group of 15 we got introduced to Geoff who is an experienced bat handler/carer for the East Yorkshire Bat Group. I learnt about the structure and design of the bat boxes, the ecology of the bats on the reserve. The UK has 18 bat species, at Tophill Low there are 6. I record which bat boxes were checked, the number of individuals present and the sex.
  • 10 bat boxes were checked
  • 21 bats in total consisting of Common Pipistrelle (Pipistrellus pipistrellus) and Soprano Pipistrelle (Pipistrellus pygmaeus)
  • 5 confirmed males, 10 females, the other 6 were in brooding chimney boxes which cannot be opened
  • 3 of the boxes had fresh faeces in which suggest there is more bat activity across the reserve. 



Image 2: Male Soprano Pipistrelle.

All Coppicing that 

Coppicing is a manual process of cutting back vegetation halfway at a 45 degree angle near to the ground leaving a stool. This allows dense regrowth of vegetation to be maintained every 3-5 years.
The site I was working on was initially a cricket pitch in 1970 for the workmen on the water treatment site. Now a flourishing meadow attracting an array of species. 
In 1993 a hedgerow of Hazel (Corylus avellane), Field maple (Acer campestre), Crab apple(Malus sylvestris) and Black Hawthorn (Prunnus spinosa) were planted, but over the years it has been neglected. I got stuck in to help Richard and his regularly volunteers in cutting a boundary in which light could reach the floor this meant we had to get our hard hats on and fell some trees! 

Why is this conservation important?

Known as biodiversity indicators Bats have both international and National importance. Bats act as pest control, spread seeds to expand areas of vegetation, as well pollinating plants. Bats fundamentally allow other species to complete life cycles while having habitats to live in and food. Bats come into conflict with humans when they roost but we shouldn’t evict them but accommodate them.

Coppicing has been replaced by machinery over recent years, however this practice is solely beneficial to wildlife as it doesn’t destroy prime habitat for food, shelter meanwhile adding diversity. Dormice (Gliridae) are correlated to accommodate coppiced environments as it allows the sun to access the ground, diversifying niches. In the next 5 years Tophill Low are reintroducing dormice into this region, which would be a great success, providing educational opportunities.


How can you get involved?

If you’re an outdoorsy person why not contact Richard the warden about weekly volunteering parties, join the team, gain experience and have fun! If you are craving quiet time why not sit back and survey anything you see to increase the species spotted on the reserve; little contributions go a long way in conservation. Or why not go one step further and become a member of the site and bring the whole family, as there’s plenty of events on throughout the year to offer education. 


More Information


  • Boyd, M. (2019). Tophill Low Nature Reserve. [online] Tophilllow.blogspot.com. Available at: http://tophilllow.blogspot.com/ [Accessed 7 Oct. 2019].

  • Buckley, G. (1992). Ecology and Management of Coppice Woodlands. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, pp.213-232.

  • Evans, J. (1992). Coppice forestry - an overview. pp.18-27.

  • Fuller, R. and Warren, M. (1993). Coppiced woodlands. Peterborough: Joint Nature Conservantion Committee, pp.5-24.

  • Medellín, R., Equihua, M. and Amin, M. (2000). Bat Diversity and Abundance as Indicators of Disturbance in Neotropical Rainforests. Conservation Biology, 14(6), pp.1666-1675.

  • Peterson, M., Birckhead, J., Leong, K., Peterson, M. and Peterson, T. (2010). Rearticulating the myth of human-wildlife conflict. Conservation Letters, 3(2), pp.74-82.

  • Voigt, C. and Kingston, T. (2016). Bats in the Anthropocene: Conservation of Bats in a Changing World. Cham: Springer International Publishing, pp.427-462.















Nature's natural corridor

Where were we? Pedunculate oak on Burringham hill in Scunthorpe 2,225 trees planted on site I and J We were working on two large distinct si...